Loading...
2017 Mobility Study, Oakland Park Mobility FinalApril 2017 2 Table of Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4 Vision .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6 Background and Prior Planning in Oakland Park: ........................................................................................................................................................ 11 Parking Study ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Tri-Rail Coastal Link .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 11 Overall District Challenges and Opportunities:........................................................................................................................................................ 12 Pedestrian .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Existing Conditions: .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 14 Existing Sidewalks: ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Block Distances and Crossings ............................................................................................................................................................................. 15 Amenities: ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18 Recommendations: .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 18 Bicycling: ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Existing Conditions: .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 21 Analysis and Recommendations: ............................................................................................................................................................................. 24 District Bicycle Parking ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 24 Bikeshare .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 24 Vehicular: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 29 Existing Conditions: .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 29 Analysis: ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 29 Overall Circulation: .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 29 3 NE 13th Avenue ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30 NE 10th Avenue ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30 NE 12th Avenue ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31 NE 12th Terrace Extension .................................................................................................................................................................................... 32 Rail Crossings and NE 36th Street Closure ............................................................................................................................................................ 32 Parking: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 34 Existing Conditions ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34 Event Demand Parking ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 36 General Parking Recommendations ........................................................................................................................................................................ 37 Parking Fees: ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 40 Transit: ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50 Existing Conditions: .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 50 Analysis and Recommendations: ............................................................................................................................................................................. 51 Transit Alternatives: ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 51 External ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 51 Internal Circulation: ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 55 Summary of Recommendations by Mode: .................................................................................................................................................................. 59 Conceptual Project List ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 61 4 Executive Summary The City of Oakland Park commissioned this Transit Mobility Plan to study the multimodal needs for its Culinary Arts District. A Civic Center with great potential as a future transit hub on the proposed Tri-Rail Coastal Link, this burgeoning district is home to popular local events and regional draws such as Funky Buddha. As the District develops, main concerns include adequate provision of transportation facilities and the need to account for parking. In planning for the future, the City envisions a walkable district connected to a Tri-Rail Coastal Link Station in the center of the District. Evaluation of the Culinary Arts District’s existing facilities was based on pedestrian, bicycling, transit, and the needs of vehicular traffic. Each mode of travel in a multimodal system comes together to create one overall system for access. However, from a practical standpoint, they do not need to overlap in entirety. Accessibility and mobility generally vary among the mode, and for economic development purposes, pedestrian mobility should always be maximized. Overall, the District should improve its walkability in the short term through the construction of new sidewalks, planting of shade trees, and the provision of benches. Just as important as the need to develop the pedestrian infrastructure is the development of the Tri-Rail Coastal Link Station, which should be prioritized in local funding. Support for the station area comes in many forms, ranging from land use to access. Land acquisition in the area to provide for parking, as well as ensuring that pedestrian and bicycle connections to the future station area are complete. This can only be achieved through the infill of gaps in the network, both locally within the District, and through new connectivity to the region via transit (Coastal Link), new bicycle routes and bikeshare to connect to existing systems in Fort Lauderdale, Wilton Manors, and elsewhere, and consideration of future district internal mobility through further study, funding, and implementation of microtransit in a circular route connecting both east and west sides of the Culinary Arts District to any future Tri-Rail station. The following summarizes the main action steps for the City to take to enhance mobility in the district. In viewing the map, the various lines provide for expected travel routes within the district for vehicles (blue), greenways for bicycles and pedestrians (green lines), accompanied by district edge parking facilities (purple) and pedestrian/bicycle friendly green space/zones (light green blocks), and partial or complete closure of NE 12th Avenue and NE 11th Avenue (dark green lines). To implement this vision, a initial list of conceptual projects have been developed for implementation. These range from implementing BikeShare programs and the implementation of bicycle lanes to sidewalks construction and microtransit. 5 LONG TERM MID TERM Goals for the City in the Long-Term to Improve Local Mobility Include: o Pedestrianize streets such as NE 12th Avenue to encourage retail foot traffic o Maximize land use potential and reduce vehicular/pedestrian conflict zones by guiding cars to structured parking areas along district edge o Incorporate new multimodal connections such as open greenway spaces for bicyclists and pedestrians, with safe routes connecting neighborhoods SHORT TERM Actionable Goals for Future Mobility in the Culinary Arts District Goals for the City in the Short-Term to Improve Local Mobility Include: o Ensuring Pedestrian access throughout the District through the infill of all existing sidewalk gaps o Enhancement of local bicycling options through the construction of bicycle travel routes and bicycle infrastructure, such as bicycle racks o Revisions to its land redevelopment regulations to streamline parking requirements and create actionable standards to guide further project and project prioritization in the mid- and long- term o Begin land acquisition to allow for options that will enhance parking planning in the future o Determine and negotiate the best location for the Tri-Rail Coastal Link Station and invest to bring into reality Goals for the City in the Mid-Term to Improve Local Mobility Include: o Enhance local walkability through the funding and construction of pedestrian amenities, and reduction of block distances with new alleyways and pedestrian crossings o Create new connections to the Culinary Art District by expanding the regional bikeshare network into Oakland Park o Build Tri-Rail Station for regional access and connect to district via microtransit to aid local economic development. 6 Vision 7 It is 2035. A visitor steps off the Tri-Rail Coastal Link Station onto a promenade in the heart of the Culinary Arts district in Oakland Park. Bustling with activity, this jewel in Broward County, Florida boasts some of the best food in the region. Our visitor sees an attractive, walkable, small but vibrant downtown that has emerged, with a community evolving over the past 20 years to include restaurants, bookstores, specialty markets, a fine arts theater, offices, and new residences. Walking down the street is an enjoyable experience, beautiful, with fountains and places to sit and take in the surroundings. Events enjoyed in 2016 by residents continue to abound, with annual festivals expanding further into other opportunities to partake in activities that define a beautiful and high quality of life. Despite being in an urban environment next to a train station, residents of the area enjoy ample open space, and walk and bicycle through the district to exercise, shop, and travel. Families in the area begin their weekdays with a safe and short walk to school. On the weekends, walks to local jazz and music nights on the promenade, food truck festivals, art shows, and farmer’s market fill out calendars. Unlike the past, residents now have one quick way to the airport and other cities, instead of multiple transfers. The reverse is also true. The increased mobility offered by the train station at Oakland Park has expanded the City’s market area. Drawing in folks from all over to shop and eat at local stores, business in the District is booming. Left: Seating area, a parklet in a walkable, mixed-use neighborhood in California. Middle: A pedestrian promenade, across the street from the Metro Station in Santa Monica, CA. Right: Coastal Link Station Area Opportunity vision for Oakland Park. Source: www.berkeleyside.com(L); pinterest.com (M); Tri-Rail Coastal Link Station Area Opportunties(R) 8 It all starts today. Back in present day Oakland Park, our community is planning to ensure that this vision becomes reality. The focal point of this study, the Culinary Arts District, also known as the Downtown Mixed Use District (DMUD), is in the City of Oakland Park by the intersection of North Dixie Highway and Oakland Park Boulevard. The DMUD is a Local Activity Center spanning approximately 1 square mile centered on Dixie Highway and the Florida East Coast Railway (FEC). In 2004, the City of Oakland Park amended its Land Development Code to establish the DMUD and adopted the accompanying Oakland Park Mixed Use District Design Guidelines. The DMUD process and resulting legislation embodies best practices as it relates to fostering smart growth, economic development, and creating locations for public events and activities. Subsequent to the adoption of this thoughtful policy, the economic downturn limited the City’s ability to test its effectiveness, due to the lack of development. With the recovering economy and the return of development, the City has identified certain gaps in the plan that need to be addressed to move the DMUD into the future. These gaps center around transit, parking deficits, pedestrian and bicycle accessibility, and future traffic concerns. These elements lend themselves to the overall concept of “Mobility.” What, then, is Mobility? An oft-thrown around phrase, mobility is about the movement of goods and people. In planning for improvements to mobility, this Plan’s goals focus on getting people to the District in an easy manner. Ensuring mobility in the future will involve planning for the increased movement that occurs when an area develops economically, creating new reasons to travel to and from a place. As the District increases its density of development, more traffic will enter the area, and the City, then, reaches a crossroad. This story is no different than with other cities in Broward and South Florida – herein, a city is faced with a choice: does it accommodate this increased traffic by expanding the roadways, or by other means to diversify viable travel options? The lessons of the past tell us that no city can truly build their way out of traffic increases, and an overreliance on personal automobile usage for travel has taken its toll on many areas, creating large concrete landscapes that, at times, becomes impersonal and cold. The vibrant vision that Oakland Park has for its current and future residents run counter to what has been a reality for other places. Unlike those communities, Oakland Park has the advantage of proximity to a future commuter rail system, and with local redevelopment lies the opportunity to plan for the needed infrastructure to support alternative modes and move people out of their cars. Crowds gather on NE 12th Avenue to listen to music in front of City Hall Source: City of Oakland Park 9 Mobility, affecting both the movement of people and goods, is vital to the future economic development of the Culinary Arts District. However, planning for the District is not without its challenges. The FEC rail line splits the district in two, and connectivity between the east and west sides of the District must be improved. With the development of regional rail, without moving forward on being part of the train service, Oakland Park would get all of the negative aspects of frequent train passage, but reap none of the benefits. Thus, there is a need to site and successfully integrate a new transit station into the district, which can only be done by investing in the community’s future through the development of local facilities which encourage transit, bicycling, and walking. Parking, as component of these goals, has been a topic of study and concern in the district in the past. Parking needs will need to be accommodated both from a geographical and a numerical standpoint, and connected to with sidewalks and promenades to storefronts. In some parts of the district, additional rights-of-way will be needed to ensure better sidewalk and bicycle paths. However, while there are challenges, they are not insurmountable. Properly planned, mobility fosters connections between the district and the surrounding neighborhoods. Getting people out of their cars to walk will also encourage foot traffic by visitors once they are within the District. By noting these potential for improvements in this report, whether they are sidewalks, benches, bike racks, transit, and others, City becomes armed with the tools and policies needed to invest in the District’s future. Building upon this through sound policies and investment, our vision of 2035 as envisioned will grow into reality. 10 11 Background and Prior Planning in Oakland Park: The City of Oakland Park Downtown Mixed Use District is a Local Activity Center located at the intersection of North Dixie Highway and Oakland Park Boulevard. At 1 square mile, this small but important district in the City serves as a civic center, with local main street development planned. In 2004, the City of Oakland Park amended its Land Development Code to establish the DMUD and adopted the accompanying Oakland Park Mixed Use District Design Guidelines. As originally envisioned in a 1999 Charrette, Oakland Park determined that this district was “well positioned for Downtown redevelopment.” Subsequent planning built upon the original 1999 Charrette, the December 2002 Downtown District Redevelopment Plan, and the 2004 amendments to move the DMUD into the future. After the adoption of this thoughtful policy, the recent economic downturn limited the City’s ability to test its effectiveness, due to the lack of development. Post- recession, new opportunities and a revisit of the City’s needed for this district is warranted. The Downtown District Redevelopment Plan calls for a main street development along NE 12th Avenue, and a general increase in density for the district. Home to City Hall and other civic infrastructure, current planning includes consideration of a new civic/government center area and setting aside of land for the development of a commuter rail station. Parking Study In 2009, the City commissioned a parking study of the LAC/DMUD district. Splitting the district into 37 blocks, the study noted the space and location of parking, which was distributed throughout the district. The study found that, based on existing standards, the City had 1, 853 spaces available between public and private sources resulting a need for 577 spaces. Using the existing City standards to project growth in retail/office development and restaurant/bar businesses, the report found that there would be a deficit of 1050 and 1897 spaces, respectively, under future land use and density plans at the time. In addition, the study also separated the 12th Avenue corridor as a separate parking improvement area, noting a deficit of 180 spaces under current requirements, and a projected deficit of 225 and 414 spaces for future retail/office and restaurant/bar businesses, respectively. Tri-Rail Coastal Link Currently, the Tri-Rail Coastal Link is under development, and PD & E studies have been conducted for the line. As part of the analysis, each potential station area was analyzed for potential market opportunities; with Oakland Park’s serving as a main street, mixed use development The Culinary Arts District is located is eastern Oakland Park and noted above in blue. 12 area, with opportunities for redevelopment in the surrounding industrial areas, including by what is now Funky Buddha. Oakland Park’s immediately proposed station to the north is downtown Pompano Beach, and to the south is Wilton Manors. However, it should be noted that station spacing indicates a future competition for station development. SFRTA, the authority in charge of developing the Tri-Rail system, has indicated that not all proposed stations will be developed, and that there are criteria related to local support, transportation and land use which feed into the decision-making process. The proposed stations themselves are also placed into different phases for development. Phase I involves stations in Miami-Dade County up to Aventura, and possibly up to Fort Lauderdale. Phase II involves a branch from the existing Tri-Rail link in West Palm Beach up to Jupiter. Stations north of the rivers in Fort Lauderdale are currently in Phase III due to the need to expand the rail crossings over the rivers in Fort Lauderdale to accommodate Coastal Link trains. Overall District Challenges and Opportunities: Various challenges and opportunities abound in the Culinary Arts District. Ripe for redevelopment, the availability of retail space for restaurants and businesses in the district provide a venue which can attract visitors and more businesses over time. The potential of a Tri-Rail station adds to the potential for future residential development in addition to the new development recently completed north of Jaco Pistorius Park. There is good local support for enhancing the local district, as evidenced by the fountains, landscaping, and seating along NE 12th Avenue. These items are strong public displays conducive to convincing regional authorities to place a station in Oakland Park. Ample land in the community is available for future development, and new projects are currently being proposed and implemented. However, each of these activity generators present new needs for connectivity and facility improvements in the community, and local regulations must be updated to ensure that the impacts of these developments are mitigated and accounted for in the city’s strategic planning and vision for the Culinary Arts District. Ensuring foot traffic for economic development means that additional pedestrian facilities will be needed for the future. Internally, the district currently has good levels of roadway service. However, while zoning and future land use are aligned for future TOD development, there is a need to determine policies for the future in regards to district parking and the amount of acceptable traffic in the area as it develops. Over all, the district is compact, measuring 0.5 miles east-west and approximately 1 mile north-south, and should theoretically be walkable. Despite this quality, the rail line cuts through the center of the district, creating challenges for pedestrian and bicycling movement within the district. This rail, while potentially providing for a future rail station, also effectively splits the district into an east side and a west side. Field reviews show a noticeable difference in current infrastructure and the two subdistricts show marked differences in pedestrian and roadway development. While there has been intense focus on NE 12th Avenue, the other portions of the overall district will require investment to create similar conditions, and intensified planning and regulation is needed to reduce the high levels of pedestrian/vehicular conflicts on the west side of the district. 13 14 Pedestrian The first aspect to check for with local, brick-and-mortar economic development plans is to check the conditions of the sidewalks. Walkability is key for local businesses such as restaurants and other merchants because foot traffic is best generated in walkable places, and the increased exposure is only enhanced through increased local mobility and accessibility. To assess pedestrian facilities in the area, this study inventoried existing sidewalks, and noted block sizes and pedestrian crossings within the District. Generally, walking paths should generally be at least 5 feet in width. However, varying communities enact different policies regarding the width of sidewalk, as meeting the minimum does not necessarily result in a better walking environment. As a small, transit oriented development area with proposed multistory buildings and ground level retail, the City should strive to encourage walking by creating a comfortable amount of space for pedestrians. For standards, the City should consider main drag for shops, offices should have minimum 8’, upwards of 10’ for seating for restaurants, etc. Minor side streets should have minimum of 6 feet in width within the district. In addition, given the intended and burgeoning commercial and mixed-use nature of the district, and the vision for a transit oriented development, continuous walking paths should be ensured through the placement of sidewalk and pedestrian infrastructure on all streets within the district. Existing Conditions: Existing Sidewalks: Sidewalks are present and generally very well maintained on NE 38th Street, NE 12th Avenue, NE 10th Avenue, Oakland Park Boulevard, and most of NE 33rd Street, NE 34th Court, and NE 37th Street within the District. Short segments of sidewalks can be found on NE 35th Street and on NE 13th Avenue, among other more local streets. Overall, the district will need additional sidewalks over time. Figure 3.C indicates the location of existing sidewalk infrastructure. In addition, it should be noted that on NE 33rd Street, NE 32nd Street, and NE 11th Avenue, pedestrian-vehicle conflicts are higher along some segments due to position of parking in relation to the pedestrian pathway, as can be seen in Figure 3.C. This issue predominately affects the Existing Sidewalks Figure 3.A Existing Sidewalks 15 western portion of the Culinary Arts District. On Eastern side of the district, the general pattern of infrastructure development is to have the sidewalk between the parking and the building, though there are exceptions. Block Distances and Crossings Block Distances are both short and long in the Culinary Arts district. Within each subdistrict, the blocks are short and walkable, provided appropriate infrastructure exists. However, the FEC Rail line and North Dixie highway which bisects the district artificially creates longer distances due to the lack of crossings, as can be seen in Figure 3.B. Within the Culinary Arts district, there are 3 crossings – NE 38th Street, NE 34th Court, and Oakland Park Boulevard, with a 0.25 mile distance between each crossing. Block distance is an important aspect of transportation and urban design for a family oriented district. Generally, the average person will walk 0.25 miles, and upwards of 0.5 to 1 mile in optimal conditions. Elderly and children generally walk less than the 0.25 mile distance, and encounter fatigue at longer distances. Massing and scale also improve people’s likelihood of walking. In a small, compact district such as the Culinary Arts district, over time destinations can be massed; and thus, the likelihood of a person walking depends on the actual distance. The “porosity” of the pedestrian grid, which affects the most direct path a person can walk, is important and affected by the number of intersections and safe crossings in the district. As stated in other sections of this report, the FEC rail line artificially creates longer block distances within the district, and reduces local mobility. Pedestrian Level of Service Standards Level of Service (LOS) standards are commonly used to evaluate roadway conditions for traffic flow. Similar Pedestrian LOS standards are much less commonly used, but for this study the following standards—based on sidewalk conditions, supporting amenities, and the overall pedestrian environment quality—were developed: Figure 3.B Effective walking distances in District 16 Within the District, as can be seen in these aerials of NE 10th Avenue and NE 11th Avenue, the issue of a lack of sidewalks is compounded by the amount and type of parking along the roadways, which increases pedestrian/vehicle conflict points. Source: Google Earth LOS A: Highly pedestrian-oriented and attractive with sidewalks, pedestrian-friendly intersection design, low-vehicular traffic volume, and ample pedestrian amenities. LOS B: Similar to A, but with fewer amenities and low-to-moderate level of interaction with motor vehicles. LOS C: Adequate for pedestrians, but with some deficiencies in intersection design, plus moderate interactions with motor vehicles. LOS D: Adequate for pedestrians but with deficiencies in intersection design, pedestrian safety, and comfort features; some gaps in the sidewalk system; and, moderate-to-high interactions with motor vehicles. LOS E: Inadequate for pedestrian use; deficient pedestrian facilities; and, high interactions with motor vehicles. LOS F: Inadequate for pedestrian use; no pedestrian facilities; and, high interactions with motor vehicles. The City of Oakland Park does not have a set Level of Service standard for pedestrian facilities; for this District, it is recommended that it adopt a LOS A within the District and construct facilities accordingly to reach this standard. Multiple streets already meet this level of standard; others in the City are close, and with minor improvements will reach this standard. However, there are places where there are no pedestrian facilities; the City should consider prioritizing those improvements first in order to provide a basic grid, before adding onto a grid to enhance the pedestrian environment. Figure 3.C Parking and Pedestrian Conflicts 17 Pedestrian Level of Service: Pedestrian level of service varies throughout the district. Table XYZ shows the existing facilities and conditions, and the LOS by roadway. Obstructions and vehicular/bicycle/pedestrian conflict levels were noted via field study, and given consideration in the LOS evaluation. Roadway From To Posted Speed Limit Sidewalk Bicycle Infrastructure Additional Comments LOS Ped Oakland Park Boulevard NE 10th Avenue N Dixie Highway 35 5', both directions N/A High levels of Vehicular Traffic B Oakland Park Boulevard N Dixie Highway NE 13th Avenue 35 5', both directions N/A High levels of Vehicular Traffic B N Dixie Highway Oakland Park Boulevard NE 38th Street 35 6', both directions; narrows to 5' at various points on NB side Sharrow Markings City in process of adding additional shade trees; long distance between crossings C N Dixie Highway NE 38th Street NE 40th Court 35 6', both directions Sharrow Markings Long Block Distance without crossing point B NE 38th Street NE 10th Avenue N Dixie Highway 25 min 5' ft sidewalks, wider on WB side with plaza Sharrow Markings Benches on both sides for seating, outdoor seating for Funky Buddha; midblock crossing by parking lot A NE 38th Street N Dixie Highway NE 13th Avenue 25 5' ft sidewalks, both directions N/A Various Utility Pole Obstructions on WB side B NE 34th Court NE 10th Avenue N Dixie Highway 25 5' ft sidewalks, both directions Bicycle Lanes (4' both directions) Colored pavers at intersection B NE 34th Court N Dixie Highway NE 13th Avenue 25 6' both directions between NE 12th Street and NE 12th Court, None between NE 12th Court and NE 13th Street N/A Landscaping with trees/shade between NE 1th Street and NE 12th Court C NE 10th Avenue Oakland Park Boulevard NE 40 Court 25 5' on NB direction, not continous for entire length N/A Gap at Berean Church; parking leaves no clear space for pedestrians C NE 11th Avenue Oakland Park Boulevard NE 39th Street 25 None N/A High levels of Pedestrian/Vehicular Conflicts due to Parking. No swale or clear space when vehicles parked at various points; pedestrian traffic forced onto roadway.F NE 12th Avenue Oakland Park Boulevard NE 38th Street 25 Min 5' ft sidewalks, both directions, with various wider segments, and plazas Bicycle Racks in front of City Hall, at Post Office, and by entrance at Oakland Park Boulevard Seating available every block at fountain area. Pedestrian crossings clearly marked with colored Pavers A NE 13th Avenue Oakland Park Boulevard NE 38th Street 25 5' sidewalk between Oakland Park Boulevard and NE 32nd Street only N/A F Figure 3.D Pedestrian LOS Map Table 3.A Pedestrian LOS 18 Amenities: Shade, lighting, seating, and wayfinding all contribute to the pedestrian experience. The availability of seating and shade are important for pedestrians who require stopping points to rest or shelter from the elements. Increasing the visual appeal of the surrounding environment and enhancing the perception of safety through pavement markings, lighting, and lowering vehicular speeds also generally encourages more people to walk. Lighting will be important in the Culinary Arts District given the general activity hours of restaurants are around lunch, and after work for dinner. The following summarizes the general conditions observed during the field study: • Shade: Shade was lacking during the field study. Additional shade via structures or plants are necessary throughout the district to enhance pedestrian travel, especially during the summer. There are some exceptions, such as on the west side of NE 12th Avenue and on NE 34th Court between NE 12th Avenue and NE 12th Court. • Lighting: As a culinary arts district, the expectation is that there will be more foot traffic at night. A field review during nighttime hours indicated a need for more lighting throughout the district. In addition, the City should consider crosswalk flashers, either in pole form or in- ground, at all crossing on North Dixie Highway and Oakland Park Boulevard. • Seating: Seating along NE 12th Avenue is well done, and can also be found on NE 38th Street and in Arts Park. However, generally more seating along sidewalks are needed in the Culinary Arts District as it develops. • Wayfinding: Wayfinding may help with district branding as well as enhance the pedestrian realm. • Pavement: Markings and materials for traffic calming already exist within the district, though not at all intersections. Additional improvements can be made to upgrade those intersections in the future. • Speed: Local district speed limits are between 25 and 35 mph, depending on the roadway. Recommendations: Network Completion: The most important aspect of any pedestrian network is its completeness. While the City has focused its efforts and created a beautiful and comfortable walking environment on NE 12th Avenue, the rest of the district should. In planning for the future, all streets in District should have NE 12th Avenue is a well maintained portion of the district, with seating, shade, and textured crossings/sidewalks. The City has also added new fountains with lighting as well to enhance the visual environment. Such improvements generally encourage people to walk. 19 either a sidewalk or shared use path. Main roadways which serve as the main drag for shops and gathering areas, such as NE 12th Avenue (Main Street) should have a minimum of 8 ft sidewalks, with consideration for 10 ft in areas of high pedestrian traffic or where there is outdoor seating available at restaurants. Other roadways within the district should have a minimum of 6 ft. Lighting is currently inadequate for the intended development of the district, as this is a restaurant district, lighting should be installed throughout (also consider vehicular spacing for lighting as well). Based on the amount of missing sidewalks, it will cost approximately $8.2 million to infill the gaps. A challenge in implementing sidewalks throughout the district include the need to acquire additional right-of-way on the streets which do not have sidewalks on both sides of the street. These should be implemented either through investment by the city, or as a requirement for new developments coming in to ensure that adequate pedestrian facilities exist in the neighborhood. Seating and Shade: Seating is ample on NE 12th Avenue, but lacking elsewhere in the district. Due the family and visitor oriented nature inherent in culinary arts districts, additional seating is needed, and should be placed within every 0.05 miles in the district when it is built out. Shade is also lacking in many areas; shade trees should be emplaced at regular intervals, especially at seating areas. As part of future urban efforts, the inclusion of open space with shade and seating will not only provide the City with programmatic space for its event, but will also serve the purpose of enhancing the walking environment for residents and visitors alike. Block Length and Walking Distance Improvements: Addressing walking distance within the District will enhance mobility and provide increased accessibility. These improvements will need to address the challenges currently posed by the lack of connectivity between the east and west sides of the district created by the FEC rail line and North Dixie Highway. The following lists the intersections at which improvements should be made to allow for safe pedestrian crossings: 1. Pedestrian Bridge or Mid-Block crossing at NE 33rd Street 2. Mid-Block Crossing (and Flashers at NE 36th Street) 3. Crossing at NE 13th Avenue and Oakland Park Avenue 4. Mid-Block Crossings at NE 10th Avenue/N Dixie Highway 5. Mid-Block Crossing at NE 39th Drive/N Dixie Highway While on the east side, a denser roadway network has resulted in smaller blocks and easier pedestrian access between residences and businesses, the same is not true of the west side. To break up blocks on west side, the City should create new pedestrian/bicycle pathways between NE 10th Avenue and NE 11th Avenue. Acquisition of this right of way should be noted now, and implemented as the area redevelops. Vehicular Speed/Traffic Calming: Lastly, the City should, over time reduce the neighborhood vehicular speed to 15 mph on all local roads in the Culinary Arts District. Local roads next to heavily traversed businesses should be reviewed again in the future to determine feasibility of lowering 20 speeds to 10 mph in the district. The City should also consider petitioning the Florida Department of Transportation for speed reduction to 25 mph for N Dixie Highway, a regional arterial, between Oakland Park Blvd and the intersection of NE 10th Avenue/N Dixie Highway. Recommendations Figure 3.E shows the conceptual design of the pedestrian network, including sidewalks, greenways, and enhanced crossings in the long term. In the Short Term, the City should: 1. Acquire land as needed for sidewalk rights-of-way and parks as desired 2. Begin completing the Sidewalk Network 3. Remove Sidewalk Obstructions on NE 38th Street west of N Dixie Highway 4. Provide additional lighting, shade, and seating In the Mid Term, the City should: 1. Create Mixed-Use Paths to continue to complete the sidewalk network 2. Develop greenways and green spaces within the District 3. Enhance crossings across N Dixie Highway to shorten blocks/walking distance In the Long Term, the City should: 1. Covert NE 12th Avenue into a pedestrian mall 2. Consider reconfiguring parts of NE 11th Avenue as a pedestrian mall. 3. Continue to develop greenways and green spaces provide safe routes and programming space connecting the neighborhood Figure 3.E Conceptual Pedestrian Grid 21 Bicycling: Bicycling can serve as a short and mid-distance trip for many folks, provided that appropriate infrastructure is available. Bicycle facilities come in multiple forms and provide for two specific functions: travel and storage. Both have a wide range of variety in how we can provide for these functions. For storage, bicycle racks and lockers come in various sizes and form – some even double as public art. For travel, facilities range from sharrows to bike lanes, shared-use paths, and cycle tracks. However, in spite of the multitude of options, evaluation of the existing connections for the District, like with other areas, involved noting the vital connections: • To and from the region • To integrate the district and the neighborhoods • To create ease in internal mobility • To better the connect east and west portions of the district over the FEC tracks. Evaluation of local bicycling facilities included a review of existing bicycle level of service by major roadways in the district, an inventory of existing bicycle parking, regional connectivity, and bikeshare program opportunities. Existing Conditions: Bicycle facilities are more prevalent east of North Dixie Highway in the study area, but is generally lacking throughout the district. Bicycle facilities within the Culinary Arts District include bicycle parking and dedicated rights-of-way. Bicycle lanes are located on NE 34th Court between NE 11th Avenue and NE 10th Avenue and N Dixie Highway north of NE 40th Court, and marked sharrows are located on North Dixie Highway between Oakland Park Boulevard and NE 40th Court. Bicycle racks are located at City Hall, Jaco Pistorius Park, by NE 12th Avenue and Oakland Park Boulevard, the Post Office, and Art Park. As can be seen from Figure XYZ, these bicycle racks XYZ. Outside of the district, North Dixie Highway south of Oakland Park Boulevard has sharrow markings, and leads to bicycle lanes beginning at the city limits with Wilton Manors to the south. To the north, North Dixie Highway’s existing bicycle lanes continue to West McNab Road. Figure 3.F: Existing Bicycling Facilities Bicycle Racks Bicycle Lanes Sharrows 22 Bicycle Level of Service Level of Service (LOS) standards are commonly used to evaluate roadway conditions for traffic flow. The following standards—based on sidewalk conditions, supporting amenities, and the overall bicycling environment quality—were utilized: • LOS A – On and off street facilities, low level of interaction with motor vehicles, appropriate for all riders; • LOS B – Low level of interaction with motor vehicles, appropriate for all riders; • LOS C – Appropriate for most riders, moderate interaction with motor vehicles; • LOS D – Appropriate for advanced adult bicyclists, moderate-to-high interactions with motor vehicles; • LOS E – Cautious use by advanced adult riders, high interactions with motor vehicles; • LOS F – Generally not safe for bicycle use, high level of interactions with motor vehicles. In evaluating bicycle level of service, one of the basic means of assessment is the provision of facilities. However, whether riders utilize the system depends on the perception of safety and the conveniences attached to the bicycle network. In viewing the appropriateness and completeness of a bicycle network, the three images to the right tell us a great deal about significant factors to be aware of: age appropriateness of the facilities, security of property at destinations, ability to move around, and considerations on how to address bicycle/pedestrian/vehicular conflicts at various points along one’s routes. The type of expected ridership should factor into future planning, and being in a local neighborhood with a focus on culinary arts that is close to an elementary school, families and young children are key considerations when thinking about local mobility. Currently, Oakland Park does not have a set level of service for bicycle facilities. Within the district, it is recommended that the City adopt a Level of Service B as a standard. 23 Bicycling Level of Service and Map Bicycling level of service varies throughout the district, but is generally poor. Table XYZ shows the existing facilities and conditions, and the LOS by roadway. Obstructions and vehicular/bicycle conflict levels were noted and given consideration in the LOS evaluation. Roadway From To Posted Speed Limit Sidewalk Bicycle Infrastructure Additional Comments LOS Bike Oakland Park Boulevard NE 10th Avenue N Dixie Highway 35 5', both directions N/A High levels of Vehicular Traffic D Oakland Park Boulevard N Dixie Highway NE 13th Avenue 35 5', both directions N/A High levels of Vehicular Traffic D N Dixie Highway Oakland Park Boulevard NE 38th Street 35 6', both directions; narrows to 5' at various points on NB side Sharrow Markings City in process of adding additional shade trees; long distance between crossings C N Dixie Highway NE 38th Street NE 40th Court 35 6', both directions Sharrow Markings Long Block Distance without crossing point C NE 38th Street NE 10th Avenue N Dixie Highway 25 min 5' ft sidewalks, wider on WB side with plaza Sharrow Markings Benches on both sides for seating, outdoor seating for Funky Buddha; midblock crossing by parking lot C NE 38th Street N Dixie Highway NE 13th Avenue 25 5' ft sidewalks, both directions N/A Various Utility Pole Obstructions on WB side C NE 34th Court NE 10th Avenue N Dixie Highway 25 5' ft sidewalks, both directions Bicycle Lanes (4' both directions) Colored pavers at intersection C NE 34th Court N Dixie Highway NE 13th Avenue 25 6' both directions between NE 12th Street and NE 12th Court, None between NE 12th Court and NE 13th Street N/A Landscaping with trees/shade between NE 1th Street and NE 12th Court C NE 10th Avenue Oakland Park Boulevard NE 40 Court 25 5' on NB direction, not continous for entire length N/A Gap at Berean Church; parking leaves no clear space for pedestrians C NE 11th Avenue Oakland Park Boulevard NE 39th Street 25 None N/A High levels of Pedestrian/Vehicular Conflicts due to Parking. No swale or clear space when vehicles parked at various points; pedestrian traffic forced onto roadway.C NE 12th Avenue Oakland Park Boulevard NE 38th Street 25 Min 5' ft sidewalks, both directions, with various wider segments, and plazas Bicycle Racks in front of City Hall, at Post Office, and by entrance at Oakland Park Boulevard Seating available every block at fountain area. Pedestrian crossings clearly marked with colored Pavers B NE 13th Avenue Oakland Park Boulevard NE 38th Street 25 5' sidewalk between Oakland Park Boulevard and NE 32nd Street only N/A C Figure 3.G.2 Conceptual Bicycle Grid Figure 3.G.i Bicycle LOS 24 Analysis and Recommendations: District Bicycle Parking The District’s number of bicycle parking is mostly appropriate for current levels of development; as more businesses and people move into the area, more bicycle parking should be placed around the District. However, most existing bicycle parking is in the east portion of the district; only the Art Park has bicycle parking on the west side. Further, from a locational standpoint, bicycle parking is inadequate due to the distance between the available bicycle parking. The City should consider maximum spacing between bicycle racks, and have more even dispersement of bicycle parking throughout the district. In addition, additional bicycle racks should be included in any new development, particularly on the west side of the district. Bikeshare As a Culinary Arts district surrounded by a residential neighborhood, with aspirations for a commuter rail station, provision of bicycling facilities to allow visitors and encourage residents is necessary to reduce the reliance of vehicles in the District in the long term. Bikeshare, when coupled with infrastructure, offers both visitors and the occasional rider the opportunity to utilize an alternative mode of transportation. For the former, one can hardly be expected to bring a bike everywhere; for the latter, this allows an alternative for folks who do not ride as regularly and therefore do not own a bicycle. Typically, bicyclists travel at an average speed of 11-12 miles. The B-Cycle model currently being used allows for a half-hour ride without surcharge, or 5.5-6 miles. However, the closest bikeshare stations are 1.8 miles from the east and 1.7 miles from the south. Even accounting for slower riders and the heavier rideshare bicycles, this is a short trip, taking anywhere from 10-20 minutes. Partnering up with and encouraging the neighboring City of Wilton Manors in developing bikeshare through the Broward B-Cycle will further allow for easy access from other areas. Bikeshare locations within the district could be coupled with select locations in the immediately surrounding neighborhood, to provide additional access for local residents for not only the district, but subregionally. Source: Broward B-cycle 25 Recommended improvements for the bicycle network are designed to fill the main pathways that are critical to a complete network. For north and south access and travel through the district, these critical roadways are N Dixie Highway, NE 13th Avenue, and NE 10th Avenue. For east and west access and travel through the district, the critical pathways run along Oakland Park Boulevard, NE 38th Street, NE 34th Court, and NE 33rd In this map, the district is outlined in yellow, with active B-cycle stations noted with blue call- outs. At 1.8 and 1.7 miles, this is a short 10-20 minute ride for most individuals. Source: Broward B- cycle Figure 3.H Existing Bikeshare Locations Relative to DMUD 26 Street. All other roadways within the district are part of the bicycle network, but because of the local nature of these roads, they can be treated as sharrows. However, over time, the City should also consider separate bicycle pathways in addition to the roadway network, in order to reduce block sizes. While not immediately vital in the short term, in the long term, these pathways will enhance mobility in the district and encourage ridership by providing infrastructure that casual riders generally prefer due to perceptions of safety. The following provides further details on recommendations for each of these roadways. North and South Bicycle Travel N Dixie Highway – Shared Use Path, East Side A shared-use path should be explored on the east side of North Dixie Highway; this would like a minor reconfiguration of the roadway, by reducing the width of the street parking by 5-6 feet from its current 12-13 feet, and at some points, some of the landscaping. The City can elect to move the parking to more centralized locations, which will provide . South of the District, there should be a short distance implementation of bicycle lanes, allowing for continuous bicycle facilities to currently existing bicycle lanes beginning at the Wilton Manors’ city limits. Alternatively, the City can also explore bicycle lanes on the roadway as other planning has indicated, though depending on configuration, this may require more space, and may be more expensive. NE 13th Avenue – Shared-Use Path, West Side The right-of-way on NE 13th Avenue currently consists of a 2-lane road, with some segments having sidewalks but others with no other facilities. To reduce the amount of intrusion into the residential neighborhood on the east side of the roadway, it is recommended that the City create a shared-use path on the west side, and acquire the 6 - 12 ft of easement (depending on the roadway segment) as the area redevelops. In addition, by placing the facilities on one side of the roadway, the City will reduce some of the costs incurred by the relocation of utilities along NE 13th Avenue, as concrete utility poles line the roadway on both sides. NE 10th Avenue The current roadway on NE 10th Avenue is 20’; there is no room for Bike Lanes without expansion. Three options for bicycle facilities exist: a shared-use path on the east side, which would require the space occupied by the sidewalk and swale; bike lanes, which would require removing the swale on the east side and additional right-of-way acquisition and pavement on the west side; and sharrows in the short term. However, in the long term, as the goal of the plan is to shift the bulk of the vehicular traffic out of the district and onto NE 10th Avenue, sharrows are not recommended in the long term, and the two other alternatives should be explored as the district redevelops in order to ensure the proper right- of-way entitlements are obtained. East and West Travel 27 Oakland Park Boulevard Providing bicycling facilities on Oakland Park Boulevard has its challenges. There is little right-of-way available to implement new facilities other than through a road diet involving a full removal of a vehicular travel lane on a highly traversed roadway. Sharrows are not recommended as a result of these high traffic volumes, and it would be expected that the average rider would utilize the sidewalk. However, access to the district would be of a more regional than local nature on this roadway, and because this portion of the roadway is a very short segment thereof, no specific recommendations can be given at this time. Rather, as the City revises its overall master planning, it should consider the whole length of the roadway to ensure one continuous facility. NE 38th Street Sharrows are recommended for NE 38th Street, due to a lack of available right-of-way. While bicycle lanes with a minimum of 4’ in each direction would be preferable in the long term, current traffic levels and the posted speed limit indicate that sharrows will be acceptable under current and short term conditions. NE 34th Court Bicycle Lanes with a minimum of 4’ in each direction already exists to the west of NE 11th Avenue. No facilities exist east of the district, thought he City should consider providing bicycle lanes to the east along this corridor as well. Bicycle parking facilities should be considered at Art Park on the NE 34th Court side. NE 33rd Street Bicycle Lanes with a minimum of 4’ in each direction is recommended for NE 33rd Street between NE 16th Avenue in the east, and NE 3rd Avenue in the west. In addition, because there is no crossing at NE 33rd Street over the FEC rail line and North Dixie Highway, it is recommended that a pedestrian and bicycle crossing facility be placed at that juncture will allow for more direct walking and bicycling routes, facilitating mobility between the residential neighborhood, Oakland Park Elementary School, and civic facilities within the Culinary Arts downtown district, including City Hall and the Ethel M. Gordon Oakland Park Library. An at-grade crossing facility or a pedestrian bridge should be considered at the intersection of NE 33rd Street and North Dixie Highway. All Other District Roadways/Secondary Bike Network Grid All other roadways in the district form a secondary portion of the bicycle network. These local streets can be treated as sharrows, and ridership can be encouraged these roadways with bicycle signs and pavement markings for driver education and notice and reduction of speeds within the district to 15 mph or less. Though generally possessing more range and mobility than pedestrians, bicyclists would also benefit from small blocks 28 within the district. Therefore, in breaking up the blocks on the west side, designing allowing for a bicycle component as part of the plans will be beneficial. Recommendations: In the Short Term, the City should: 1. Acquire ROW 2. Install Bicycle Facilities on main routes 3. Add more Bicycle Racks In the Mid-Term, the City should: 1. Break up larger blocks with new bike/ped alleys/routes 2. Implement bikeshare program and initial 1-2 stations 3. Begin emplacing internal greenways In the Long-Term, the City should: 1. Complete the network by addressing all gaps in the grid 2. Implement more bikeshare stations and bike racks as needed Intersection or crossing improvement Focus area for more Bicycle Racks Main Bicycle Routes Figure 3.I Conceptual Bicycling Grid Improvements 29 Vehicular: Existing Conditions: Regional access to the district involve the following roadways: • N Dixie Highway • Oakland Park Boulevard • NE 38th Street All other roadways are primarily local in nature, with NE 34th Court serving as a short intra-city minor collector roadway. All roadways in the district are generally well maintained. With the exception of a small segment on NE 12th Avenue and that section’s one-way pair with NE 12th Terrace, roadways in the District are 2- way. Rail crossings are limited to 4 locations in the district: NE 38th Street, NE 36th Street, NE 34th Court, and Oakland Park Boulevard. Three of these are signalized with traffic lights. Historical data from the Florida Department of Transportation for the major roadways servicing the local roadways indicate acceptable roadway levels of service currently exist. However, over time, the City wishes to reduce the speed and volume of through traffic on streets internal to the District, to better promote walking and bicycling as means of transportation. Analysis: Overall Circulation: Roadway LOS is adequate in the area. Currently, freight rail runs through the corridor, as observed during a field visit in the late evening, but occurs at time when there is little traffic in the area. However, once passenger service on the FEC commences, it will impact traffic at the 4 intersections. The City may need to examine signal timings in the future, and may need to consider if certain intersections should be closed. However, the actual impact will be dependent on multiple factors not currently assessable, including frequency of service, impact on regional travel to new transit nodes, several of which are still in determination, and traffic growth in the area that is dependent on policy decisions on density. As planned, Brightline service, which is expected to begin in 2017, will result in closure 16 times a day, and freight will be synchronized Culinary Arts District in Blue; main roadways for regional access to District noted Figure 3.J Regional Vehicular Access Routes 30 with commuter rail traffic to minimize roadway impact as needed. Tri-Rail Coastal Link’s impact on the roadways will be dependent on the frequency of the trains, which as of this report is yet to be fully determined. Local circulation can be improved on NE 12th Avenue, where the current roadways configuration not only confuses drivers, but unnecessarily creates a more circuitous route in an area with low traffic. Preservation of some alleyways behind buildings will be important to future circulation as the District develops. As the area is planned as a Culinary Arts District, it will have higher concentrations of restaurants and markets in the long term, requiring these alleyways for service entrances. Discussed in other sections of the report is the idea of enacting policies that encourage the reduction of flow-through traffic as a means to encourage increased walking and bicycling in the District. This will require that specific roadways around the district be planned to intake traffic destined for parking, and that parking be concentrated around those roadways over time. Further, for roadways internal to the district, such as NE 12th Avenue, lowering of speed and closure of some roadways to vehicular traffic will help focus the district in its intended goals to have a greater share of walkers and bicyclists to drive local economic growth. The following discusses access and main roadways within the district in greater depth: NE 13th Avenue For intercepting traffic from the east, NE 13th Avenue is a good avenue of focus for district edge capture of vehicular trips, especially given potentially available land for parking along this road. However, an inherent challenge in directing the traffic onto NE 13th Avenue exists in the positioning of stop signs on NE 13th Avenue and NE 15th Avenue, as well as the positioning of the turn lanes on Oakland Park Boulevard. Patrons diving to the district may find traveling north-south on NE 15th Avenue easier, as the stop signs on NE 13th Avenue create stops for north-south flow, whereas the stop signs on NE 15th Avenue require drivers to stop if they are approaching the intersection form the east or the west. Turning onto and off of Oakland Park Boulevard is also more easily effected at NE 15th Avenue; traffic cannot turn onto NE 13th Avenue when approaching from the west. Without changes to NE 13th Avenue and NE 15th Avenue, traffic would reasonably be expected to increasingly intrude into the local neighborhoods as the district develops. Reversing the pattern by which stop signs constrict traffic and redesigning the intersection of NE 13th Avenue and Oakland Park will solve this issue and should be explored further. NE 10th Avenue NE 10th Avenue serves as a potentially good focus for district edge capture of vehicular traffic on the west side of the Culinary Arts District. Unlike the other roadways discussed in this section, there are no barriers or current issues to note. 31 NE 12th Avenue In evaluating the overall roadway network, NE 12th Avenue required special consideration as a main street servicing City Hall and a range of local businesses. Of particular concern was the 2- block segment of this roadway between NE 35th Street and NE 34th Street. This roadway segment, unlike to its north and its south, is one-way only, and confusing to drivers. During the field review, a vehicle was observed driving the wrong way; based on local reports, this is a frequent occurrence on this roadway. Redesigning the roadway is possible, with several phases over time to street closure an option for the City. Conversion to 2-way traffic for the two block segment can serve as a Phase I, and conversion of the entirely of NE 12th Avenue from Oakland Park Boulevard to NE 38th Street as a one-way roadway is a potential Phase II before pedestrianizing NE 12th Avenue/Main Street as a final Phase III. Phase I: 2-way Redesign of the current roadway to convert the two block segment would require existing right-of-way to be reallocated. This right-of way exists, but is currently utilized as parking. The current lane is 16 ft; at least 20 will be needed for the vehicular travel lanes. Removing 19 of the existing angled parking spaces, as well as the island at the intersection NE 12th Avenue and NE 34th Street, will allow for this conversion. There is also the possibility, depending on design, of converting the existing angled parking into parallel parking. Phase II: 1-Way Conversion of the roadway to a one-way road between Oakland Park Boulevard and NE 38th Street will require signage additions and the removal of the island at the intersection of NE 12th Avenue and NE 34th Street. Further, the recommended direction is from south to north only. This is due to the proximity of the intersection of NE 12th Avenue and Oakland Park Boulevard to the FEC line and N Dixie Highway, which affects access from Oakland Park Boulevard. Currently, vehicles can only turn onto NE 12th Avenue at this intersection. Phase III: Full closure (Long term): From a mobility standpoint, however, NE 12th Avenue has potential as a pedestrian pathway. A future, long term alternative would be a full closure. This closure will have minimal impact on traffic – current traffic as well as expected future circulation given the configuration of roadway network indicates a trend towards cut-through or parking traffic. NE 12th Avenue is not a major roadway for the district. Further, this closure would be supportive of the City’s aim in reducing intra-district car travel over time. The long-term vision of the City is for NE 12th Avenue to be a pedestrianized Main Street. Phase I will require the removal of the island and repavement of the intersection and roadway. Photo Source: Google Earth 32 Implementation should be in the long term and phased. NE 12th Avenue could over time, by converting to a one-way street in the mid-term, and in the long term, become a pedestrian mall. Existing parking on NE 12th Avenue may be moved alternative areas within the district (Parking structures, east-west side streets, i.e. NE 33rd Street, etc.). However, while repurposing the area as pedestrian mall, with programmatic space, extended seating areas for restaurants, and kiosks or additional small buildings, the roadway should still be kept open at NE 34th Street, NE 38th Street. At partial closure or full closure, there are options to preserve middle of the ROW for any internal transit circulator. From an implementation standpoint, closure of the roadway will have minimal impact on the district’s traffic. Parking on the street can be repositioned at key locations within the district, with the space saved on Main Street being repurposed for civic business purposes. NE 12th Terrace Extension As part of the Mobility Study, an extension of NE 12th Terrace north of NE 38th Street was examined. While the roadway is paved, it is currently closed, and would require redesign to accommodate regular traffic. The impact on the local area and the culinary arts district in the short term, however, is minimal. The new road could serve as a new connection in the local network as an alternative north-south route to NE 15th Avenue and NE 16th Avenue. However, while further study would be required, there are no indications that there is a traffic calming need due to excessive cut through travel. The extension of this roadway would also make sense if NE 38th and US-1 were both heavy in traffic. However, currently, the AADT indicates that US-1 (35 mph, Class 2 road) is operating at LOS D (AADT, FDOT counts, 2015), with directional flow even for both sides (and historical pattern over the past 10 years indicating the same). The flowthrough speed is higher, so unless this new roadway is at the same speed or provides a quicker route, it will unlikely to have any meaningful need/effect at the current time, though this should be evaluated over time with regular traffic counts as need arises. Alternatively, we can look at traffic flowing east-west. This new route would provide an alternative to travel from NE 6th Terrace and E Commercial Boulevard via NE 38th Street. However, there is no current need, as NE 38th Street which is currently LOS C. However, while in the short term and perhaps mid-term there is no need, in the long term, the opening of this road does hold merit if the Culinary Arts district densifies. In this case, this roadway would provide alternative connectivity to regional transit for the local neighborhood, and provide better localized bus/circulator route options to other parts of Oakland Park. Rail Crossings and NE 36th Street Closure Due to the increased frequency of rail traffic expected along the current FEC corridor, it was necessary to review the various vehicular crossings within the Culinary Arts District. Four such crossings exist: 1. NE 38th Street 2. NE 36th Street 3. NE 34th Court 4. Oakland Park Boulevard 33 Of these, NE 38th Street, NE 34th Court, and Oakland Park Boulevard are all vital roadways to the District. However, this is not the case for NE 36th Street. At this crossing, the roadway has a right turn only from the east onto N Dixie Highway. From the west, NE 36th Street is a 1-way road, heading west from N Dixie Highway to NE 11th Avenue. Thus, there is no cross through vehicular traffic. Cursory review of the roadway grid also indicates that closure of this crossing would have minimal impact in the area. Further, because the City’s aim is to reduce vehicular traffic within the district in order to promote alternative modes of transportation, closing this crossing to vehicular traffic would reduce intra-district vehicular travel. Given the benefits, this intersection should be closed for cars; however, it is recommended that it be kept open for pedestrian and bicycle traffic. Removal of the crossing will also likely allow for easier implementation of a mid-block crossing to be emplaced at NE 36th Street and N Dixie Highway, which would greatly enhance pedestrian and bicycle connectivity by shortening the distance people have to walk or bicycle within the district. Recommendations: In the Short Term, the City should: 1. Close the 36th Street Crossing to Vehicular Traffic 2. Reconfigure NE 12th Avenue (Main Street) as a 2-way roadway 3. Maintain local alleyways as service access for local businesses In the Mid Term, the City should: 1. Align Roadways for Parking/Traffic Calming as traffic increases 2. Reconfigure NE 12th Avenue (Main Street) as a 1-way street 3. Shift more parking off the streets 4. Maintain local alleyways as service access for local businesses 5. Shift the focus of district vehicular access to NE 10th Avenue and NE 13th Avenue 6. Lower district speed limits to 15 mph In the Long Term, the City should: 1. Convert NE 12th Avenue into pedestrian mall, while allowing for traffic to flow through on NE 38th Street and NE 34th Court 2. Extend NE 12th Terrace northwards to create new connections to the north and an alternative path to Commercial Boulevard 3. Lower district speed limits to 10 mph except on NE 13th Avenue, NE 10th Avenue, NE 34th Court, and NE 38th Street 4. Shift most of parking to along N Dixie Highway, NE 38th Street, NE 10th Avenue, and NE 13th Avenue 34 Parking: Parking in the Culinary Arts District is a local concern, with prior studies in the LAC in 2009 and before to plan for future needs. The development of a train station as well as changes in local land use and economic development changes presents a need to review existing parking inventory and projected new needs based on expected incoming development. The DMUD is broken down into 7 sub-areas, each with their own unique mixed-use ratio. If fully redeveloped based on the allowed densities and development potential, the needs in each area will vary. Parking needs were evaluated via an assessment of existing and potential land uses in the district. Research on parking demand management and an assessment of potential parking in relation to other stated goals were necessary to develop a more comprehensive plan for the District. In addition, the existing parking waivers program currently utilized by the City was reviewed; as a general policy, it is recommended that this practice be discontinued. Existing Conditions Expected Needs in the District was determined via assessment of the land use designations within the district, and calculations based on build- out scenarios and compared with local regulations. The analysis, which was divided by assessing east and west side (as divided by North Dixie Highway) needs separately, and noted that the east half of the portion has more available parking than the west side. This was confirmed via field reviews and discussion with City staff. Currently, existing parking (Public, Private) consists of 1853 spaces. The LAC assessment in 2009 noted a need for 2430 spaces. A large portion of the available spaces are along NE 12th Avenue, by the Post Office, and on the east side of North Dixie Highway. Despite the noted projected need, field assessments indicate that there is no overall shortage of parking. However, localized shortages are more prevalent on the west side, as the long block sizes and the low number of crossings for North Dixie Highway noted in the pedestrian portion of this analysis indicates a reluctance for people to park further in the district and walk. This issue is likely to continue until better pedestrian and bicycle facilities, or a local transit circulator are implemented. The discrepancy between expected need and existing parking indicates that one would be circling around the district on a regular basis to look for a space. Where, then, does this discrepancy come from? Mainly, the calculations for expected needs has been derived from the existing suburban code utilized by the City. Given local businesses and the land uses of the Culinary Arts District, this projection is not a good fit. The projected needs must also be recalculated from the 2009 figures given land use changes in the area. Moving forward, adjustments to expectations of parking need are needed. There is also a policy decision that needs to be considered. With the development of a commuter rail station, less parking will be acceptable within the district, as alternative modes allow for people to not drive. While this doesn’t mean that parking needs are eliminated, adjustments are needed to the parking formula to account for more urban uses, mixed-use, and potential shared parking factors. 35 Parking Projections Under Current Code With a max build out of 3 stories: East Side • Commercial Retail/Office with Residential 3,640 • Commercial Rest/Bar with Residential 12,353 West Side • Commercial Retail/Office with Residential 4,916 • Commercial Rest/Bar with Residential 13,457 With a max build out of 6 stories: East Side • Commercial Retail/Office with Residential 7,628 • Commercial Rest/Bar with Residential 20,824 West Side • Commercial Retail/Office with Residential 9,251 • Commercial Rest/Bar with Residential 28,924 Adjusting the parking needs estimate as previously mentioned, the following were assumed to present a more approximate local needs based on existing conditions and future planning for the Culinary Arts District. Assumptions: 1. Mixed-Use 2. Improved Transit options (BCT and Coastal Link) 3. Current 1.56 autos/HH 4. Mix of usage = mix of times for peak parking 5. TDM and Rideshare programs available 6. Assumes additional space is for increased Commercial SF The following provides for a reduced potential parking needs estimate. 36 With a max build out of 3 stories: East Side • Commercial Retail/Office with Residential 2,726 • Commercial Rest/Bar with Residential 3,610 West Side • Commercial Retail/Office with Residential 3,598 • Commercial Rest/Bar with Residential 4,212 With a max build out of 6 stories: East Side • Commercial Retail/Office with Residential 5,948 • Commercial Rest/Bar with Residential 8,246 West Side • Commercial Retail/Office with Residential 7,101 • Commercial Rest/Bar with Residential 8,189 Event Demand Parking Local events in the Culinary Arts District add additional demand at various points of the year. Two field evaluations were undertaken during this study. Background interviews with the Broward County Sheriff’s department indicated that as they had a parking management plan, there have generally been no issues. Only 3 tickets for parking violations attributed to local events have been issued in the past two years. Parking for events at Funky Buddha/Jaco Pistorius Park generally involves utilizing existing parking stalls on North Dixie Highway, NE 12th Avenue, and NE 34th Street between NE 12th Avenue and NE 13th Avenue, as well as the empty lots west of the intersection of NE 38th Street and North Dixie Highway. During the field study, it was noted that during the June 2016 Funky buddha anniversary event, which draws approximately 7,000 – 10,000 annually, it took an hour for parking to reach approximately 85% capacity. Parking was not an issue for attendees during the event. Similarly, during the Oktoberfest 2016 event, there were no parking issues encountered during the event. During these events, local golf cart shuttles were utilized to ferry people between the parking and event location without issue. Event parking within the small district does not have to be at the site location, but can be from several centralized points. Current parking may be deemed adequate; however, with increased regular activity in the district, additional parking will be necessary. In addition, current parking for events overlap with expected station needs for the Tri-Rail Coastal Link project. While it can be expected that some attendees will make the trip via mass transit, the need for some parking should be evaluated once the station is developed. Future means of addressing event parking needs range in cost and applicability based on the size of the event, and include options such as pre-ticketing for parking stations, alternative transit staging areas, mass transit ridership incentives – such as discounts for the event, and premium pricing for local parking. 37 General Parking Recommendations After review of existing and projected parking requirements, as well as the local development code in regards to mandated parking for the area, general recommendations include revisions to the current code to remove contradictions, revise exemption clauses, and provide for different fees-in-lieu of parking over time. Oakland Park’s DMUD regulations utilizes a very suburban code to solve increasingly urban and transit oriented uses; revisions recommended in this section are designed to move away from a more suburban to a better fitting format for the Culinary Arts District. To provide for future parking, land acquisition as well as provisions for mixed-use parking and retail/residential should be included in the land development regulations. Parking demand management is also necessary in the long term, and a variety of techniques may help future issues. Lastly, over time, parking should be shifted from road to structural parking in the long term. A. Recommended Parking Standard for Residential Development: CREATE MULTI-FAMILY PARKING STANDARDS The City currently requires 2 parking spaces for all dwelling units, no matter if it’s a single family or multi-family or mixed-use development. Continuing to use this suburban single family, detached home standard for the redevelopment areas would be out of scale for what the actual need will be. A standard for multi-family and for mixed-use developments is needed. Based on the character of a highly mixed-use neighborhood with various other safe and convenient mobility options, a lower than standard multi-family parking standard would be appropriate. The mixed-use standard is lower than a development that is a stand-alone multi-family due to the efficiencies of a mixed-use development. The mixed-use development standard is two-tiered to account for other parking reduction policies that could be used to provide less on-site parking, such as centralized parking or shared use reductions. Recommended Standard for Multi-Family Dwellings: Multi-Family Unit Size/Type Parking/ Dwelling Unit Efficiency/Studio 0.75 One Bedroom 1 Two or more Bedrooms 2 Multi-Family Unit Size/Type Parking/ Dwelling Unit Qualifications Mixed-Use, all Units 1 When no other parking reductions are being used 1.5 When other parking reductions are being used 38 Where a development is located near premium transit such as a multi-modal hub or the future Tri-Rail Coastal Link station the following factors can be multiplied to produce modified parking requirements: Location Factor Applied Within 500 feet of Station 0 (no parking required) Within 1,000 feet of Station 0.5 Within 2,000 feet of Station 0.75 Other parking standards need to be reviewed and provided for in the revision of standards. Guest Parking policies and review of contradictory language also yielded recommended changes for consistency and applicability to local conditions of needs. CREATE GUEST PARKING STANDARDS Not all cities choose to require guest parking for multi-family residential developments. Those that do require guest parking use ratios that are appropriate for their individual community and its character. Cities that are developed with a large average of smaller rental apartments with a high transit use and high property values tend to have low or zero guest space requirements. While multi-family in suburban, family oriented with land uses spread-out and minimal transit coverage have place a high importance on ample guest parking. The standard that would be appropriate for Oakland Park would be a moderate requirement. Recommended Standard: “Guest parking required for multi-family developments with a minimum of 10 units at a ratio of 1 space for each 10 units” DELETE: Sec 24-80 (B), subparagraph (a) last sentence, “but shall not be located upon land zoned for residential use.” This regulation is about allowing parking on lots other than the one where an establishment is located. The requirement wouldn’t work in certain mixed use and residential zones in the DMUD, where it is needed. Non-residential properties typically generate different needs for parking. The following are recommended standards for Non-Residential Development. 39 B. Recommended Standard for Non-Residential Development: Use Type Exempt (no parking required) Reductions in DMUD Non-Residential < 2,500 SF >2,500 SF 50% of required per Sec. 24-80 Restaurant/Bar < 2,500 SF >2,500 SF 1 space/200 SF (including outdoor dining) Where a development is located near premium transit such as a multi-modal hub or the future Tri-Rail Coastal Link station the following factors can be multiplied to produce modified parking requirements: Location Factor Applied Within 500 feet of Station 0 (no parking required) Within 1,000 feet of Station 0.5 Within 2,000 feet of Station 0.75 PROHIBIT OFF-STREET PARKING OR LOADING BETWEEN THE FRONT OF THE BUILDING AND THE STREET In a downtown mixed use environment, parking located between the building and the street is not desired, it detracts from the pedestrian, walkable ambiance. However, the impression of ample parking visible from the street is highly desirable from the business community. If the code does not specifically prohibit this, it will be very difficult to be successful in attracting quality urban pedestrian scaled development. Regulation Example: Off-street parking and loading is not permitted in front of the primary building façade except for single-family and two-family residential uses. 40 Parking Fees: FEE-IN-LIEU PROVISION Beyond requiring a developer to physically add parking, some municipalities allow developers to pay a fee in lieu of providing the required parking. The city may approve that an applicant make a one-time payment equivalent to the estimated cost of providing a portion of the required parking spaces to serve the proposed use. Approval of the payment in lieu should be at the option of the Planning Director. Any off-street parking satisfied in this manner would run with the land and any subsequent change of use which requires more parking would require subsequent action to satisfy the additional parking requirement. No refund of such payments would be made when there is a change to a use requiring less parking. Prior to issuance of a building permit and/or business license, the applicant would deposit the in-lieu payment in one lump sum payment, payable as directed by the city treasurer. The amount of the payment should be fixed by resolution adopted from time to time by the city council. Funds derived from such payments should be deposited by the city into a special fund, to be used to develop additional parking resources. Funds shall be used to finance centralized parking (either surface lot or a multi-level garage) on the edge of the downtown mixed use district. Based on other city examples, the fee should be based on the average cost for land acquisition and the cost to construct one parking space. The cost could further be refined based on an adjustment according to the consumer price index (CPI). For example, the City of Miami Beach revised its in-lieu fee in 2014 based on the cost to build two recent parking structures within the city. The result was to adjust the fee from $35,000 to $40,000 per space. In this example, it was estimated that the average cost to construct one parking space in a parking structure of between 435 to 545 spaces was $24,300 each ($10 - $13.5 million in 2010). Applying the CPI adjustment, the average cost to construct one parking space increased to $26,000 (in 2014 dollars). In addition to construction cost, the acquisition cost added an estimated $14,000 per parking space (citywide average of $176/SF; 81 SF per parking space). In recent national analysis of the average cost to construct a parking structure, the national average is much lower than the City of Miami Beach example above. The 2015 national average is $18,600 per parking space or $55 per square foot. The median cost in this region of the country (Miami Metro Area) is still lower at $16,400 per space or $49 per square foot. A median cost parking structure typically includes such features as: • 8’ 6” wide parking spaces • Precast concrete superstructure • Attractive precast concrete façade with basic reveal pattern • Glass backed elevators and unenclosed stairs clad with glass curtain wall to the exterior • Basic wayfinding and signage 41 • Shallow spread footing foundations • All above grade construction • Open parking structure with natural ventilation without mechanical ventilation or fire sprinklers • Little or no grade level commercial space • Basic parking access and revenue control system • Energy efficient fluorescent lighting The construction cost of the parking structure would be higher than the median if it includes such enhanced features as: • 9’ 0” wide parking spaces for better user comfort • Cast-in-place post-tensioned concrete superstructure for lower maintenance • Attractive façade with precast, brick, metal panels, and other materials • Green Garage Certification following the Green Parking Council standards • Energy efficient LED lighting with occupancy and photocell computer controls • Custom wayfinding and signage system • Storm water management including on-site retention/ detention • Deep foundations, such as caissons or piling • Below grade construction • Enclosed stair towers due to local code requirements • Enclosed parking structure without natural ventilation where mechanical ventilation and fire sprinklers are required • Grade level commercial space • Mixed use development where the parking is integrated with office, retail, residential, or other uses • State-of-the-art parking access and revenue control system License plate recognition • Parking guidance system • Count system with variable message LED signs • Pay-on-foot stations • Wi-Fi and cellular services 42 The following table provides a synopsis of the varying cost of construction: Location Cost per Space Cost per S.F. City of Miami Beach $40,000 $121 Miami Metro Area $16,400 $49 National Average $18,600 $55 Land ownership costs and the type of parking facilities (garage vs. surface lot) are variables that should be considered. Additionally, the City should consider the potential to utilize land already owned, thereby cutting the cost to supply additional parking. Land ownership’s cost should be considered as one way to judge the City’s financial limit for a subsidy program as an economic incentive. Additionally, there is the opportunity cost of using land for parking as opposed to other viable uses. The Oakland Park In-Lieu fee is currently $15,000/space. As can be seen from the analysis above, even in 2015, this In-Lieu fee would not be enough to fully fund parking (approximately $1,400 lower than median Miami Metro Area). The cost of land and the type of parking structure desired are variables that should be considered for an adjustment appropriate for Oakland Park. The City may also consider financing subsidies or require developers to provide additional mobility benefits to reduce parking demands to lower costs. Some mobility projects could include: 1. Transit capital funding: a. Purchase of buses for circulator routes b. Bus shelters c. Transit infrastructure 2. Traffic improvements: a. Traffic signals b. Signal timing operations c. Lane modifications 3. Bicycle facilities: a. Bicycle lanes and paths b. Bicycle racks and storage 43 4. Intelligent transportation systems: a. Electronic message boards b. Parking Demand Management technology 5. Pedestrian improvements: a. Crosswalks b. Traffic signals Parking Waivers and Fee-In-Lieu One main issue with local development is the relatively high cost of parking fees for small businesses. The City currently uses a system of waivers to address this issue. However, at some point, the availability of parking will become constrained, and the continuance of parking fee waivers should not be further encouraged. Rather, the City may want to aggressively encourage redevelopment by allowing the in-lieu fee to be amortized over 20 years (or longer). The fee would run with the land, and the developer would not be strapped to come up with a large sum of money at building permit issuance. The City could then use the secured source of yearly income to finance capital improvement bonds and for local contributing for matching grant funding. The City benefits through the raising of capital for a parking structure sooner, rather than waiting for money to be contributed to the fund as development happens. This approach allows for more precise addressing of local needs as they arise without comprising the potential for local development, including small businesses. Another way to leverage the in-lieu fee could be to form a public-private-partnership with a developer. The City could relax development standards as a bonus to the developer (height and density maximums), and in return, gain public parking spaces within a private development. In this scenario, the City retains the option to contribute funding to the structure to meet local needs. The City may choose to revise the in-lieu fee to not only encourage redevelopment and economic growth, but based also on the potential needed parking in the DMUD. It is recommended that the City consider the in-lieu fee to be currently raised to $16,400, consistent with fees in the Miami-Fort Lauderdale area. Over time, the City will have to adjust and raise the fee further to account for additional costs to address local parking needs. As previously mentioned, the City may choose to utilized land they already own to supplement the cost to develop a parking surface lot or structure (depending on amount of money raised through the in-lieu fee policy). This won’t be possible in all the sub-areas, therefore the cost to purchase land has also been included. Figure XYZ is a table showing the parking needs in each sub-area, potential city owned sites, potential sites to purchase and the development potential (number of spaces that could be constructed). A final option is to structure the parking fee in such a manner that discounts are given to earlier developments, with later developments providing for an increased fee. This approach retains for the City the ability to provide economic development incentives while the District is 44 young. It is also justifiable because in earlier stages, the need for parking are more likely to be address by ground level lots, without the need for parking structures until the District matures further. In-Lieu Funding Potential Parking Structures Based on City Owned Land and Potential Purchase of Vacant Property Sub Area Parking Needed (15% of Total)* City Owned Parcel Vacant Parcel to Purchase Development Potential (# of spaces) Cost ($ mil) Need Met? Y/N 1E 650 1 ac on O.P. Blvd None 6 Stories, 660 spaces $10.8 N 1W 2,400 None None N 2E None 1 ac North of park None 6 Stories, 660 spaces $10.8 Y 2W 195 None None N 3E 410 None None N 3W 990 None None N 4E None None Redev Post Office 5 Stories, 1,770 spaces $9 Const. $5.6 Land Y 5W South 320 0.25 ac on 34th St/Dixie None 5 Stories, 140 Spaces $2.3 N 5W North 350 2 1ac lots N & S of 38th St/Dixie None 5 Stories, 1,100 $18 Y 6 25 None None N 7E 22 None 1 ac site on 35th St/13th Ave 3 Stories, 330 spaces $5.4 Const. $300K Land Y Total 5,362 4,660 *Assumption that 15% of all development will opt for In-Lieu Fee vs. building all required parking 45 Based on the above table, not all the parking needed within each of the sub-areas can be accommodated by utilizing the existing city owned parcels in combination with vacant parcels, however within the district, the overall difference between the need and what could be build is not vast. Regulation Example: New construction. The fee in lieu of providing parking for new construction shall be satisfied by a one-time payment at the time of issuance of a building permit of $16,400 per parking space. C. Parking Demand Management: Parking demand management SHARED PARKING PROVISION Shared parking recognizes that different land uses routinely experience peak parking accumulations at different times of the day, week or season, and not all spaces will be used at the same time. The Urban Land Institute (ULI) Shared Parking publication methodology could be considered as the standard for developing shared parking studies for mixed use developments, as well as entertainment districts such as the downtown mixed use district. The downtown mixed use district currently allows shared parking, according to a formula found in Section 24-270. While utilizing a formula calculation provides a level playing field for all those wanting to enjoy this benefit, it may be more rigid than is necessary for the City to realize a benefit from a shared use parking policy. It is recommended that the approval process be simplified to allow more businesses to utilize this benefit. A reduction in the total number of required parking spaces for two or more uses jointly providing off-street parking should be approved by the Planning Director when the respective hours of need of maximum parking do not normally overlap. Reduction of parking requirements because of joint use should be approved if the following conditions are met: i. The developer submits sufficient data to demonstrate that hours of maximum demand for parking at the respective uses do not normally overlap. ii. The developer submits a legal agreement approved by the City Attorney guaranteeing the joint use of the off-street parking spaces as long as the uses requiring parking are in existence or until required parking is provided elsewhere in accordance with the City’s parking requirements. iii. The Planning Director may approve the utilization of off-site parking areas for uses within non-residential districts. The owner of a site utilizing an off-site parking area shall provide evidence of the owner’s right to use the off-site parking area either by license, deed, easement, or by long term lease. Pedestrian access shall be available within a walking 46 distance. Such separated parking areas shall be usable without causing unreasonable traffic congestion, detriment to any residential neighborhood, or hazard to pedestrians CAR SHARING The car sharing concept is the idea of providing drivers with a vehicle for rent on an as needed basis, even for just a half day or one hour. Drivers become a member of a car sharing service, such as Zipcar and members have access to a variety of vehicles. Car share is about helping consumers save money and hassle and providing efficient transportation. The millennial generation is increasingly opting to not pay the high cost of car ownership, if there are better options that are as convenient. Car share companies cite the benefits include savings on all the cost of car ownership including maintenance (oil changes, car washes, tune-ups, tires, etc.), parking fees, insurance and gas. Car share programs report a 46% increase in public transit trips and 10% increase in bicycling trips and a 26% increase in walking trips. Additionally, an American Transportation Research Board study finds each shared car takes about 15 private cars off the road, this results in less demand for parking facilities. Cities such as Vancouver have already reduced the parking requirements because of car share programs. Regulation Example: The minimum parking requirements listed for multi-family uses may be reduced by four parking spaces for every one parking space reserved for a vehicle owned and operated by an official car-share program sanctioned by the City, not to exceed a total of four car-share parking spaces or 20 percent of the total number of required residential parking spaces, whichever is less. ON-STREET VERSUS OFF-STREET PARKING RATES A key pricing strategy is to adjust the parking rates to encourage off-street parking and increase turnover of on- street spaces. When on-street spaces are full the impression is that parking is a problem or not available. Typically, on-street parking is the more desired form of parking because of the convenience it provides patrons by being located in front of or next to their destination. Off-street parking, on the other hand, may be slightly further away, which can make it a less convenient option to patrons. Charging for parking is a common way to influence on-street versus off-street parking. There may be a benefit in supporting this philosophy of pricing premium for on-street parking higher than off- street parking. Miami Beach, as an example, charges four times the amount for on-street parking than to park in a parking structure. Photo Credit: Edward Ng 47 Source: annarborchronicle.com CENTRALIZED PARKING Another parking reducing concept is to allow requirements to be reduced for properties located near a publicly accessible off-street parking facility. When the parking facility has aspects of a “mobility hub”, further reductions could be realized. For a parking facility to be considered a “mobility hub”, two or more of the following should be present: • Designated holding areas for taxi, Uber and Lyft vehicles to wait for riders • Transit stops and transfer stations • Bike share and bike parking facilities • Carpool/Vanpool designated spaces Alternatively, a centralized valet system, such as the one utilized in Coral Gables, may allow for a centralized system without centralized location. Coral Gables’s Miracle Mile uses a system with valets at specific points. The program has been successful in reducing local traffic generated through the search for parking. Using a centralized map for the system also helps to keep consumers informed and allows them to plan in advance in their search for parking. Regulations Example: Up to 30 percent within 500 feet, up to 20 percent within 1,000 feet, up to ten percent within 1,200 feet. Such reduction shall be subject to a finding by the Planning Director based upon a parking study provided by the applicant that documents the availability of parking spaces within the publicly accessible parking facility to serve the residual demand resulting from the reduced number of on-site parking spaces, and the availability of safe and convenient pedestrian access routes to the off-site parking supply. Distances shall be measured along the pedestrian pathway between the pedestrian access points for the subject uses and the parking facility. DIRECTIONAL SIGNAGE Signage should be provided with “Public Parking” as the message and an arrow directing traffic to off-street public parking. This may include a parking logo or specific background color associated with parking in the downtown mixed use district. Some cities incorporate banners to direct motorists to their off-street pay parking The City of Coral gables utilizes a centralized valet system to supplement their parking. In addition to providing a map on parking, the availability of parking and a valet system reduces circulating traffic and congestion in the District. Source: City of Coral Gables 48 lots. The banners can include a parking logo and arrows to direct visitors. This is especially important near significant attractors, such as the future Tri-Rail station. PAY BY PHONE Pay by phone is a new technology for paying for parking. Several vendors exist and provide services to various cities. For user, it is simple and quick to register, and in some cases, the same system is used in more than one city, resulting in familiarity and an app that is already set up with payment information. Users generally have the option of paying through an app or by calling a listed number. Another benefit of this technology is that the system will send the system user a text message when their time is close to expiring. Pay by phone also reduces the need for physical space by eliminating pay stations in the right-of-way. For enforcement, parking details are sent to the handheld units issued to Parking Enforcement Officers on patrol. CREATE PARKING STANDARDS FOR BIKE PARKING AND STORAGE In addition to vehicular parking, bicycle parking in the district is also lacking and necessary. One means to address is to peg the number of bicycle parking spaces to the number of vehicular parking spaces required for development approval. An example of this regulation follows. Regulation example: Bicycle Parking/Storage. Non-residential development shall provide a minimum of six (6) secure bicycle parking/storage spaces for each 50,000 SF of floor area or part thereof. Townhouse and Multi-family development shall provide secure bicycle parking/storage spaces at a ratio of one (1) parking space for each five (5) residential units or fraction thereof. The location of the space shall be indicated on the site plan and located in a prominent location near the main entrance of the building or development. LOCATION OF PARKING: In thinking of ways to encourage walking and bicycling within the Culinary Arts District, prior sections indicated a need to consider district-edge capture. Several factors for the location of parking structure include availability of land, potential for shared uses, and proximity to destination. Planning for parking locations for the District should focus on providing adequate parking on both sides of North Dixie Highway, and concentrate on proximity to City Hall and the current Post Office. Since the District is compact, focusing a majority or all parking on NE 10th Avenue and NE 13th Avenue will reduce district through- and parking seeking traffic, while keeping destinations within short walkable distance. Importantly, this will also require vertical structures for parking in the long term, but allows the City to maximize the District’s economic development by allowing for more commercial or residential development as opposed to prior district planning, which called for more surface lots to account for parking. One example of a vendor utilized by cities in south Florida. Payment can be by meter, phone app, or through a phone call. Source: parkviewdc.com 49 Recommendations: In the short term: 1. Evaluate the areas noted in purple in Figure 3.K for viable locations of surface parking, and acquire specific lots as needed around the new City Hall and NE 10th Avenue and NE 13th Avenue. 2. Revise parking regulations. In the mid term, the City should: 1. Evaluate, plan for, and construct structural parking on the same lots. 2. Begin considering on/off street parking fees 3. Begin shifting some of the on street parking capacity off roadways such as NE 12th Avenue to reduce through traffic and prepare for pedestrianization of specific streets 4. Gradually raise parking in lieu fees 5. Implement parking demand management measures to reduce local parking needs. In the long term, the City should: 1. Evaluate and implement centralized parking system and/or valet system 2. Remove on-street parking on NE 12th Avenue, portions of NE 11th Avenue, other roadways as necessary based on actual roadway closures. 3. Continue to implement parking demand management, rideshare, transit and other multimodal programs to reduce overall district parking demand. Figure 3.K District Parking and Access Points 50 Transit: Existing Conditions: Transit service to the Culinary Arts District is currently provided via Broward County Transit Routes 50 and 72 by way of Oakland Park Boulevard and on N Dixie Highway. Bus pull-in facilities exist on the east side of N Dixie Highway. Broward County Route 50 connects Oakland Park to Fort Lauderdale, the Northeast Transit Center, and runs north-south between Broward Central Terminal and Hillsboro Boulevard and SW 3rd Avenue in Deerfield Beach. Current bus service headways operate at a peak of 20 minutes, with service 7 days/week. Service operates generally between 520 AM and midnight on weekdays, with Saturday service between approximately 6 AM and 11 PM, and Sunday service running from 8 AM to 8 PM. Broward County Route 72 runs between Sawgrass Mills Mall in Sunrise and A1A in Fort Lauderdale, generally along Oakland Park Boulevard. Transfer to the Breeze service can be done for Route 441 at Route 19. This route provides connections between the Culinary Arts District and the Oakland Park Flea Market, Coral Ridge Mall, Sawgrass Mills Mall, and the BB&T Center. Running east-west 7 days/week, this route runs on a peak headway of 15 minutes. Service generally runs between the hours of 5:30 AM and 12:45 AM on weekdays, with Saturday service between approximately 6 AM and 12:45 PM, and 8 AM to 10 PM on Sundays. The FEC rail line currently bisects the District, and regional passenger rail will operate on the system, with planned commuter service also to occur in the short to mid term. However, no current stop exists on the route. There is no direct access to existing regional rail. Passenger rail access for the Culinary Arts district to existing Tri-Rail service involves multiple transfers, from Route 50 to Route 22 at Broward Central Terminal, and then onto Tri-Rail at the Fort Lauderdale Tri-Rail Station, or on Route 72 to the Route 441 Breeze, and then southwards to Golden Glades Tri-Rail Station. Source: Broward County Transit 51 Analysis and Recommendations: Transit Alternatives: External Broward County Transit The two existing routes to the Culinary Arts district already provide the area with ample service, though in the future, with the development of the Tri-Rail Coastal Link system, additional routes may be developed. There are already existing bus bays on North Dixie Highway which will help facilitate the development of a hub within the district; these service Route 50. However, an additional bus pull-in by the gateway at NE 12th Avenue and Oakland Park will enhance connectivity to the potential government/civic center currently being planned in the southern part of the district. Additional bus routes on a regional basis are currently not needed at this time, as the existing lines provide good access to and from the District and feed into regional hubs. Figure 3.L Future Planned Civic Center Area and potential bus stop location. Source: City of Oakland Park, The Corradino Group, Google Earth. 52 Tri-Rail Coastal Link The proposed Tri-rail Coastal Link is a commuter rail system which will run between Jupiter to Miami, connecting coastal downtowns throughout the region. Currently, a station has been proposed in Oakland Park. Not only will the Tri-Rail Coastal link project provide passenger rail service and improve regional access and mobility to the residents and visitors, but it could also generate other benefits such as stimulating economic development, create jobs, provide opportunities for Transit-Oriented Development. Ensuring success for Tri-Rail will involve coordination with multiple governmental entities, providing for density increases in the City, especially within ½ mile walking distance within the Station, and other factors. The following five items are important to ensuring a station is developed in Oakland Park: 1. Station Financing 2. Density of Development 3. Parking at Station/TDM Programs 4. Transit Feeder Routes and Rapid Bus Service 5. Pedestrian and Bicycling Connectivity The South Florida Regional Transportation Authority’s plans for Oakland Park’s Tri-Rail station will act as a transit access point with frequent transit service, high development potential, and a critical point for trip generation or transfers within the transit system. Places of connection for walking, biking, park-n-ride, transit, carpooling will be provided, as well as providing direct connections to concentrated activities such as housing, commercial, office, and entertainment. Some expected characteristics in such hubs are: high forecast boarding and landing within the transit network, located in an area surrounded by higher density mixed use developments, and providing connections for two or more high capacity lines. Overall, how people can access the station, whether by walking, bicycling, or through transit feeder routes will contribute to its success. Because there are so many proposed stations, and each location bears a significant cost, investment into the station may help some communities move Source: Tri-Rail Coastal Link South Florida East Coast Corridor (SFECC) Transit Analysis Study 53 Figure 3.M – Potential Tri-Rail Station Locations the project along. If the City decides to treat the Tri-Rail Coastal Link as a high priority, it should be prepared to ensure some financing for the station, as well as prioritizing connectivity projects identified within the study and which service the station’s immediate vicinity. Parking availability for the station is important; however, multimodal options, such as bikesharing, in combination with transportation demand management programs such as ZipCar, which is currently being used at the West Palm Beach Tri-Rail Station, will provide additional connections to the proposed Tri-Rail Station. Two alternative locations exist in the district that can serve as the location of a potential new station in the Culinary Arts District: At NE 38th Street and by NE 34th Street. The selection of either location will require the relocation of existing parking to another area within the district and further discussion with the FEC. However, the City should pursue at least one location for the stop, because new train service will occur with or without a station at Oakland Park, and without a nearby station, the City would simply experience all the inconveniences of the rail line, but none of the economic and mobility benefits the Coastal Link could bring to the District. Alternative Location 1: NE 38th Street Location The NE 38th Street location would be located to the southeast of the intersection of NE 38th Street and North Dixie Highway. Potential room for development of parking and nearby commercial and residential development exists on both sides of North Dixie Highway. Locating a station at this location would require the relocation of approximately 53 parking spaces. This parking can be replaced within the vicinity of the station, either across the street at two currently empty lots, or through the development of a parking structure replacing the currently existing lots east of the proposed station area. In addition, due to this proposed location’s proximity to the Funky Buddha Brewery, a pedestrian bridge at NE 38th Street connecting the station is recommended. It should be noted, however, that NE 38th Street is a major roadway in the grid; potential impact on local traffic lessen its value as a viable site as other locations can serve as alternatives. Alternative Location 2: NE 34th Street Station A second potential location for the placement of a Tri-Rail Coastal Link by the current post office at NE 34th Street. Locating a station at this location would require the relocation of approximately 50 parking spaces. This parking can be replaced within the vicinity of the station by redeveloping existing parking into structured parking by the current post office building. Placing the station there also provides . A secure crossing by NE 33rd Street or NE 54 34th Street would not only break up the blocks, but would facilitate a shorter, more direct path to walk to Oakland Park Elementary School. In the future, a parent could walk their child to school, and within 5-10 minutes can catch a commuter train to go to work. In reviewing both locations, we recommend NE 34th Street Location be the locally preferred alternative. Additional Station development considerations: Various considerations for station area development exist. In addition to future land use, which will result in the destinations that drive the need for mobility, planning needs for the area include the station’s footprint, parking, kiss-and-ride facilities. Generally, Tri-Rail stations occupy between 2 and 5 acres, depending on the type and needs of the station and surrounding locations. As a local town/urban center stop, the spatial requirements for an Oakland Park station will be on the lower end of the scale. Lengthwise, platforms tend to range between 0.15 and 0.20 miles; there is adequate space at both NE 38th Street and NE 34th Street locations; however, with the former, the NE 36th Street connection to North Dixie Highway may need to be eliminated. Positioning of the station must be geographically specific to avoid having traffic blocked by the train stopping on the roadway; however, properly positioned, both locations can accommodate a train station with no blockage of traffic on cross streets. Currently, the railline is being doubletracked, with work on Oakland Park’s section in late 2016. However, the station area will likely need an additional third rail at the station area for bypass purposes, resulting in a need to plan in advance for additional ROW needs. Preliminary planning for the station estimates a need for 215 spaces; this has been accounted for in the past in FDOT’s PD & E studies, and is in line with SFRTA prior planning for stations. Generally, stations range between 120 – 250 spaces, with actual need depending on station type (urban center, job center, etc.). Kiss and ride: Kiss and rides are designated areas where the intent is to allow for quick drop-offs of passengers, to keep traffic moving. This also allows for commuters who utilize ride-sharing to have a location to disembark. Kiss and rides are important for transit hubs because they allow for a lowering of parking needs. Kiss and ride may be a good option for the future Tri- Rail Coastal Link Station on the North Dixie Highway side. To put in the kiss and ride, existing parking spaces would have to be repurposed as a temporary stop lane, with a close entrance for passengers, similar to the departure travel lanes found at airports. 55 Internal Circulation: Due to the district’s length and size, and because of the effect of the FEC Railline and N Dixie Highway on pedestrian and vehicular travel, a small internal circulation system will benefit mobility and connect the two halves of the district together. Three alternatives were evaluated for potential implementation: Railed trolley system, bus Trolley system, and a microtransit, pod/vehicle system. Alternative 1: Trolley; Railed One means of mobility which could also serve as branding and marketing for the district is the implementation of a fixed-route trolley. These trolleys operate on rail, and can be developed without catenary lines if the correct vehicle is employed. Multiple options exist, and have been utilized in small developments. This option would require new infrastructure to be placed in the right-of way; further, as the rail line may run with traffic, additional study is needed before implementation. Additional, a local storage and maintenance facility is necessary. This option could fulfill the goal of connecting the east and west side of the district, but is not feasible as it will increase operation and maintenance costs by over $400,000/year for insurance and other needed infrastructure. This option has the highest overall cost among the available alternatives, and the least flexible routes available. Alternative 2: Trolley, Unrailed A second alternative would be to employ a trolley system, but using buses. Buses can be designed with a aesthetically pleasing façade, and would also help with both mobility and district branding. Compared to a railed system, however, the cost is significantly less, and there is more route flexibility. Like with other Trolleys, storage and maintenance facilities are needed; however, these no not necessarily have to be in the district, and the vehicle may instead be serviced at other locations – this may be more cost efficient if the City has existing facilities that can be utilized. Further, the route can be readjusted in the future to create new connections to Broward County Transit routes and stops as needed. Alternative 3: Microtransit - Continuous and on demand A third alternative is to utilize a microtransit system. This system can be designed on both an on- demand and a fixed schedule system, and given the location and nature of the district, will be the most cost effective service if implemented. The creation of this first/last mile program to service the 56 future Tri-Rail station varies in application as it will be dependent on policy decisions. However, scalability is a consistent quality found amongst all these options, contributing to the system’s cost effectiveness. This system also holds potential for marketing of the district by providing a unique experience for visitors while simultaneously providing for mobility in the District. Antique-ish type vehicles, or the usage of automated pods are options which can be further considered during implementation. Regional examples of on-demand transit in local neighborhoods include KeyRide, a recent initiative in Key Biscayne. KeyRide provides on- demand service in a 1 square-mile area via on-call golf carts which provide service within the set area. The service, which costs $140,000 for the pilot phase, has been effective and is well utilized. The City could employ a local golf cart circulator service to service the area. Already, for events such as at Funky Buddha, locals and visitors already utilize this type of travel within the district during special events. One such service, the Downtowner, currently operate throughout South Florida, including nearby Boca Raton and in a 1 sq. mi. area of Tampa’s downtown. Service in these areas are highly successful and well utilized, and operate in an area similar in geographic size and roadway density as the Culinary Arts District. Autonomous vehicle technology systems Automated transit pods are a new technology the City should also consider in the long term. Recently pilot tested in Washington DC in the summer of 2016, this technology will be undergoing full testing in Tampa, with cross traffic, in 2017. In the long term, this system can then evolve into an automated vehicle system currently being tested in the US and under consideration for pilot program tests in Miami- Dade County in 2017. While this technology is not immediately available on a widespread basis and merits more evaluation, it should be considered in the long term given potential cost savings in transit operations and the potential to provide residents with more direct service. Implementation within the Culinary Arts District could become feasible as a pilot program with the installation of connected signal technology at intersections, as well as a general lowering of speed limits in the district or dedication of specific rights-of-way. Given the small area of travel within the district, automated microtransit shuttles Source: www.techcrunch.com Figure 3.L District Parking and Access Points 57 may be an attractive, scalable, and potentially cost effective means of connection people from district edge parking and a Tri- Rail Station to businesses and residences. However, implementation of such technology requires other technologies, such as connected vehicle ITS systems at local intersections, and requires further study and detailed analysis for implementation. Recommendations: In the short term: 1. Negotiate with SFRTA regarding a change in location for the station. 2. Incorporate into its Capital Improvements Element station area improvements, including parking and any right-of-way acquisition. 3. Enhance local regional transit connections, including the addition of bus bays and landscaping of bus stop areas by the proposed Civic Center In the mid term, the City should: 1. Develop a microtransit system for the District 2. Develop a Tri-rail Station In the long term, the City should: 1. Continue to fund and adjust the microtransit system based on evolving local demands 2. Explore Autonomous Vehicle technology as a way to preserve and enhance local transit circulator routes. The above image demonstrates potential transit routing based on Alternatives 1, 2, and 3. Not all roads in the district have to be covered by a route; the district is compact and only specific roadways need be covered. 58 59 Summary of Recommendations by Mode: Parking • Revise Current Code • Put in/retain exemption clauses • Acquire land and designate future parking structure locations • All Parking Structures should be mixed-use • Parking should be shifted from road to structure in the long term Vehicular • No immediate need for NE 12th Terrace/NE 40th Street extension • Close RR crossing at NE 36th Street to vehicular traffic • Align district destination travel to NE 13th Ave, NE 10th Ave (collectors) • Reduce traffic into district • Reduce on-street parking within district • Concentrate parking on district edge • Roadway and block realignment for vehicular travel • Increase parking in-lieu fees to standards • Set specific times for loading zones/freight to businesses Pedestrian • All roadways within district require sidewalks or mixed-use paths • Shade elements and lighting improvements necessary • Increased amount of seating necessary • Pedestrian Bridge at 33rd Street/FEC-N Dixie with Station to increase cross district access • Pedestrianize NE 12th Avenue • Consider pedestrian pocket and greenways system 60 Bicycling • Implement Bikeshare • Emplace more bike racks throughout district • Construct new bike lanes or mixed-use paths as applicable • Based on critical paths/main grid • Local roadways - Sharrows, reduce speed to 15 MPH or less. • Note: many of the recommendations follow pedestrian ones (Bridge at 33rd, greenways, etc.) Transit • External - Focus on Tri-Rail Station for 34th Street • Internal circulation – focus on smaller vehicle (cars) on set route Based on the various recommendations as summarized above, the following presents a listing of potential projects for the City to build and a ballpark estimate of costs to implement these projects. 61 Conceptual Project List 62 63 64 LONG TERM MID TERM TIMELINE/GOALS SHORT TERM Goals for the City in the Short-Term to Improve Local Mobility Include: o Ensuring Pedestrian access throughout the District o Enhancement of local bicycling options through the construction of bicycle travel routes and bicycle infrastructure, such as bicycle racks o Revisions to its land redevelopment regulations to streamline parking requirements and create actionable standards to guide further project and project prioritization in the mid- and long- term o Begin land acquisition to allow for options that will enhance parking planning in the future o Determine the best location for the Tri-Rail Station and invest to bring into reality Goals for the City in the Long-Term to Improve Local Mobility Include: o Pedestrianize streets to encourage retail foot traffic o Maximize land use potential and reduce vehicular/pedestrian conflict zones by guiding cars to structured parking areas along district edge o Incorporate new multimodal connections such as open greenway spaces for bicyclists and pedestrians, with safe routes connecting neighborhoods Goals for the City in the Mid-Term to Improve Local Mobility Include: o Enhance local walkability through the funding and construction of pedestrian amenities, and reduction of block distances with new alleyways and pedestrian crossings o Create new connections to the Culinary Art District by expanding the regional bikeshare network into Oakland Park o Build Tri-Rail Station for regional access and connect to district via microtransit to aid local economic development. 65 LONG TERM MID TERM IMPLEMENTATION: SHORT – TERM SHORT TERM In the Short Term, the City should: • Acquire land as needed for sidewalk rights-of-way and parks as desired • Complete Sidewalk Network • Remove Sidewalk Obstructions on NE 38th Street west of N Dixie Highway • Construct Bicycle Facilities on main roadways • Emplace more Bicycle Racks • Close the 36th Street Crossing • Reconfigure NE 12th Avenue (Main Street) as a 2-way roadway • Maintain local alleyways as service access for local businesses • Evaluate the areas noted in purple for viable locations of surface parking, and acquire specific lots as needed around the new City Hall and NE 10th Avenue and NE 13th Avenue. • Revise parking regulations. • Negotiate with SFRTA regarding a change in location for the station. • Incorporate into its Capital Improvements Element station area improvements, including parking and any right-of-way acquisition. • Enhance local regional transit connections, including the addition of bus bays and landscaping of bus stop areas by the proposed Civic Center 66 LONG TERM MID TERM IMPLEMENTATION: MID – TERM SHORT TERM In the Mid Term, the City should: • Create Mixed-Use Paths to continue to complete the sidewalk network • Develop greenways and green spaces within the District • Enhance crossings across N Dixie Highway to shorten blocks/walking distance • Break up larger blocks with new bike/ped alleys/routes • Implement bikeshare program and initial 1-2 stations • Begin emplacing internal greenways • Align Roadways for Parking/Traffic Calming as traffic increases • Reconfigure NE 12th Avenue (Main Street) as a 1-way street • Shift more parking off the streets • Maintain local alleyways as service access for local businesses • Shift the focus of district vehicular access to NE 10th Avenue and NE 13th Avenue • Lower district speed limits to 15 mph • Evaluate, plan for, and construct structural parking on the same lots. • Begin considering on/off street parking fees • Begin shifting some of the on street parking capacity off roadways such as NE 12th Avenue to reduce through traffic and prepare for pedestrianization of specific streets • Gradually raise parking in lieu fees • Implement parking demand management measures to reduce local parking needs. • Develop a microtransit system for the District • Develop a Tri-rail Station 67 LONG TERM MID TERM IMPLEMENTATION: LONG – TERM SHORT TERM In the Long Term, the City should: • Covert NE 12th Avenue into a pedestrian mall • Consider reconfiguring parts of NE 11th Avenue as a pedestrian mall. • Continue to develop greenways and green spaces provide safe routes and programming space connecting the neighborhood • Complete the network by addressing all gaps in the grid • Implement more bikeshare stations and bike racks as needed • Convert NE 12th Avenue into pedestrian mall, while allowing for traffic to flow through on NE 38th Street and NE 34th Court • Extend NE 12th Terrace northwards to create new connections to the north and an alternative path to Commercial Boulevard • Lower district speed limits to 10 mph except on NE 13th Avenue, NE 10th Avenue, NE 34th Court, and NE 38th Street • Shift most of parking to along N Dixie Highway, NE 38th Street, NE 10th Avenue, and NE 13th Avenue • Evaluate and implement centralized parking system and/or valet system • Remove on-street parking on NE 12th Avenue, portions of NE 11th Avenue, other roadways as necessary based on actual roadway closures. • Continue to implement parking demand management, rideshare, transit and other multimodal programs to reduce overall district parking demand. • Continue to fund and adjust the microtransit system based on evolving local demands • Explore Autonomous Vehicle technology as a way to preserve and enhance local transit circulator routes. 68